
Encyclopaedia of DesignTheory: Latin squares 
General  Partition  Incidence  Array 
Experimental  Other designs  Math properties  Stat properties 
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Topic essays:
Here is an example.
1  2  3 
2  3  1 
3  1  2 
There is no need for the symbols to be the numbers 1,...,n: any symbols will do, even colours:
Latin squares of all possible orders exist. The cyclic structure of the example above generalises immediately to any size. More generally, the Cayley table of any group is a Latin square; the above examples come from the cyclic group of order 3.
Latin squares are "equivalent" to many other types of combinatorial structures. An account of some of these, and the varying notions of isomorphism to which they give rise, is given in a topic essay.
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Peter J. Cameron
4 October 2004