Abstract Räsänen: The physics of drumming: From fractals to superdiffusion
It has long been known that musicians do not keep time with the
precision of a metronome. Here we show that in deviating from a
perfectly precise beat, a professional drummer makes patterns in the
timing and dynamics that have a particular mathematical form - a
fractal . These fractal, long-range correlated deviations make
music sound distinctly human [2,3]. On the other hand, the series of
cumulative fluctuations from the mean interbeat intervals, i.e., the
musical drift or flow, has superdiffusive properties if there is no
metronome present . We introduce our audio detection tools and time
series analysis methods behind these findings. Our results on musical
rhythms are brought to a more general context with other complex
physiological signals such as the heartbeat. We also discuss the
relevance of our results as a subtle element behind musical "groove"
-- among other better known elements such as rhythmic syncopation and
musical interplay in the band.
 E. Räsänen et al., PLoS ONE 10(6): e0127902 (2015).
 H. Hennig et al., PLoS ONE 6(10): e26457 (2011).
 H. Hennig et al., Phys. Today. 65, 64 (2012).
 E. Räsänen et al., in preparation (2017).